Frequently Asked Questions
- Technology & Deployment
- CPT/AFI Directive
CHAdeMO is an association that is open to every organisation that works for the realisation of electric mobility. The Association, established in Japan, has hundreds of members from around the globe. In Europe, CHAdeMO European office based in Paris, France, actively reaches out to and works with the European members.
Going beyond the borders of industrial segments, CHAdeMO provides a platform for a variety of stakeholders including: charger manufacturers, automakers, utility companies, charge point operators, municipalities, certification bodies and NPOs.
CHAdeMO is a proprietary term for the fast charging infrastructure that the Association promotes for standardisation.
“CHAdeMO” is an abbreviation of “CHArge de MOve,” equivalent to “charge for moving,” and is a pun for “O cha demo ikaga desuka.” in Japanese, meaning “Let’s have a cup of tea while charging.” in English.
The membership fees collected from our members are used to maintain CHAdeMO’s activities to contribute to the development of global electric mobility. For example, organising workshops and meetings to exchange best practices among members, developing and improving certification tests, developing communication tools and materials, such as our website, brochures, etc.
Regular members have access to the CHAdeMO protocol that is indispensable to develop CHAdeMO compatible electric vehicles and fast chargers. While CHAdeMO standard is published by JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard) and IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission), the right to have products certified is limited to our Regular members. Besides, Regular members have an advantage to receive advice from CHAdeMO’s technical team during the development of their CHAdeMO products.
To ensure compatibility between EVs and chargers and maintain their quality, members share technical information and participate in improving their functions. If you wish to develop or commercialise CHAdeMO chargers and need detailed technical information including CAN communication, we suggest you become our Regular member.
- If you wish to build chargers / EVs compatible with CHAdeMO → Regular Membership
- If you would like to offer services related to fast charging → Supporting Mebership
- If you are a public administrative body, NPO or other public institution and would like to participate in the CHAdeMO activities → Special Membership
CHAdeMO’s business year goes from April to March. If you joined in the first half (between 1 April and 30 September), you need to pay full amount of annual fees.
If you joined in the second half (between 1 October and 31 March), you only need to pay half of the amount for that business year.
Depending on the battery’s conditions and the temperature, speed of charging (the magnitude of electrical current) is determined by a computer on the EV called ECU and the fast charger follows the instructions by the ECU.
If the ECU estimates that the battery performance is not adequate for fast charging, the EV may stop charging. The charging speed normally gets slower as the remaining battery level recovers, mainly to protect the battery. Therefore, if you try to fast charge when the battery state of charge (SoC) is not low, the charging speed will not be very high. In addition, even if the SoC is low, the charging speed shall slow down as charging proceeds.
Batteries with high charge-discharge efficiency can be charged almost up to 100%.
CHAdeMO Association publishes standard specifications to define the fast charging interface between an electric vehicle and a CHAdeMO charger. Our charger certification system is a voluntary effort that we have been making since 2010 in order to ensure interoperability across all CHAdeMO chargers and all CHAdeMO EVs.
Here are the five organisations that evaluate and certify CHAdeMO chargers.
– Idiada (Spain)
– UL Japan (Japan)
– TUV Rheinland Japan (Japan)
– JET (Japan)
– TERTEC (Taiwan)
You can find more information about certification here.
Chargers produced by CHAdeMO’s Regular member charger manufactures are eligible for the CHAdeMO certification process. You can find more information here or you can write to us and we will give you the correct contacts.
If we want to use one AC cable for both fast charging and standard charging, we would need to re-design the cable and the connector suitable for high current and high voltage, which makes the cable thicker, heavier and more expensive.
We think it is best to keep the standard charging cable less costly and easy to handle for daily use, while prioritising safety and speed for fast charging, as the frequency of fast charger use is much lower.
500V/100A output is the equivalent of 10 air-conditioners and requires special care. This is why CHAdeMo DC fast charger includes extensive safety measures: before the start of charging, the fast charger conducts double and triple checks to make sure the connection is perfect and cables/connectors are completely insulated. Only after all checking processes are complete and safety is confirmed, the charging starts. The charging process is continuously monitored to ensure safe charging throughout.
In CHAdeMO fast charging system, the EV and the charger communicate with each other, and it is always the EV that controls the electric current. The EV keeps monitoring the temperature of its battery on a real time basis and sends current requests to the charger with a 200 ms interval. Faithful to these requests, the charger never sends electric current that could negatively impact to the battery.
Indeed, studies show and experts agree that the difference in battery capacity loss between fast-charge-only EVs and normal-charge-only EVs is small and that hotter ambient temperatures appear to have higher impact on battery degradation*.
Automakers typically offer 5-8 year warranty (or 100,000-160,000km) for their battery performance. Experts also agree that the external temperature has higher impact on the battery degradation.
Communications for fast charging requires high reliability because 500V/100A output of DC fast charging could lead to a fatal accident if any error occurs. CAN has a highly reliable record of usage as a standard communication method for automotive electronic control systems. Its higher noise tolerance excels that of PLC as a communication method for the ECU to control the charging process.
We are an association that develops and maintains the CHAdeMO protocol as well as oversees the certification process of CHAdeMO compatible chargers, and we ourselves do not develop, commercialise or operate chargers.
You can find the list of chargers and companies that produce CHAdeMO-certified chargers on our website here.
According to EURELECTRIC, “(even) If all the cars on the road today in Europe were electric, e-mobility would account for a 24% increase in total electricity demand, which could be handled without additional generation and transmission capacity.”
Given the current EV penetration rate of around 1%, we trust that there is little impact on power supply. However, in case 100% penetration is achieved today, adds EURELECTRIC, “if those cars are not charged in an intelligent and coordinated way, their impact in terms of peak demand at certain times could be much higher. And we think smart charging is the answer.” (EURELECTRIC Secretary General Hans ten Berge).
Source: Unlocking the potential of electric vehicles – EURELECTRIC publishes paper on smart charging (24 March 2015)
V2H bi-directional systems using the CHAdeMO protocol and connector have already been developed and commercialised.
There are also various demo projects in order to integrate EVs using the smart grid in different parts of the world, which shall allow us to better understand both technical and operational challenges for further development. Our understanding is that CHAdeMO V2G power conditioners are soon to be commercialised.
FCVs including the Toyota Mirai and Honda Clarity already allow power feedback using the CHAdeMO technology.
As CHAdeMO Association has valuable experience and knowledge base in standardisation having led the development of DC fast charging infrastructure standardisation, we shall aspire to contribute in this domain, eventually helping in the growth of the FCV market.
IEC has published 4 fast charging standards in the world. German automakers developed Combo-EVs that Germany promoted. However, since the EV infrastructure in Japan was already well-equipped with the CHAdeMO standard, we presume that German automakers decided to utilise the existing infrastructure to maximise the benefit to users.
German automakers and CHAdeMO Association consensually validated technical information concerning the safety and compatibility when they adopted the CHAdeMO protocol.
As for the European market, CHAdeMO standard chargers and EVs had already been established in some countries before Combo EV/infrastructure was introduced. Therefore, multi-standard chargers with both CHAdeMO and Combo connectors are gaining in popularity today.
At the current moment, CHAdeMO does not have a plan to develop adapters, because there is little demand, and because ensuring safety of fast DC charging using adapters to convert the interface shall entail a great deal of technical challenges.
To ensure and improve the convenience of all EV users, the Association works with any countries and regions with a collaborative approach advocating for “chargers for all,” but should there be movement of excluding CHAdeMO from any market, the Association shall respond to rectify the situation.
To the best of our knowledge, there are Tesla super chargers as well as some Combo chargers available, as Japanese market does not exclude other standards. Chargers equipped with other international standards are also eligible for subsidies from the Japanese government.
CHAdeMO is published by IEC along with Combo1(US), Combo2(DE), and GB/T(CN) standards under IEC 61851-23 for charging system; IEC 61851-24 for communication; and IEC 62196-3 for connector). CHAdeMO is an EN standard recognised by CENELEC, along with Combo2, as well as an iEEE standard (2030.1.1).
CHAdeMO Association asks companies that wish to develop and commercialise CHAdeMO fast chargers to become our Regular member and have their chargers certified according to the CHAdeMO Specifications in order to ensure compatibility and safety.
Both CHAdeMO and Combo are published as international standards by IEC. Going forward, we expect multi-standard chargers (equipped with both CHAdeMO and Combo connectors) to be the de facto standard, as there is momentum to collaborate in the fast charging infrastructure in order to more forward towards the common goal of accelerating EV adoption.
a. This refers to the Clean Power for Transport package proposed by the European Commission in January 2013. In this package, in order to break the dependence of European transport on fossil fuels and cut back on greenhouse emissions, the Commission aims to set out a long-term policy framework to guide technology development and investments in the deployment of various alternative fuels including electric, hydrogen, natural gas, etc.
b. With this strategy, it is proposed to adopt a directive (law) on the development of alternative fuels infrastructure, what’s known today as the CPT directive or the alternative fuels infrastructure directive, also referred to as the DAFI or the AFI Directive.
c. The objective of it is to have a single European market in this field, and it aims to set 1) minimum national targets for national infrastructure build-up, such as EV charge point numbers, and 2) common technical specifications.
a. The initial draft from the European Commission in January 2013 did not mention CHAdeMO at all. The European Parliament has initially adopted a draft report in November 2013, in which the CHAdeMO DC fast charging protocol was to be recognised until 1 January 2019 in Europe, whereas the Council adopted a “general approach”, in which they set out a more flexible and open approach.
b. After the negotiation process called the Trilogues where the above three institutions involved in the pan-European legislative procedure get together to discuss the dossier, they have decided to adopt the wording from the Council’s “general approach” for the point about DC fast charging technology standard.
c. Recognising its pervasiveness in European market, the final directive leaves the door open to CHAdeMO as well as to other standards, as long as there is one common Combo 2 connector. Multi-standard chargers equipped with both CHAdeMO and Combo2 can be installed for as long as possible. The standards can be reviewed and modified by 2020 depending on the evolution of the market.
d. On top of this, it is clearly stated in the law’s recital section that this choice for the EU common standard should not affect countries and regions having already invested in other charging technologies, nor the already existing chargers, nor EV users.
e. It is also important to note that “high power charging” is defined as “a recharging point that allows for a transfer of electricity to an electric vehicle with a power of more than 22 kW”, so the European common plug requirement does NOT apply to DC fast chargers up to 22kW nor to bi-directional V2X chargers with up to 22kW.
Member States shall ensure that high power recharging points for electric vehicles, excluding wireless or inductive units, deployed or renewed as from 18 November 2017, comply at least with the technical specifications set out in point 1.2 of Annex II.
Annex II 1.1.2:
Direct current (DC) high power recharging points for electric vehicles shall be equipped, for interoperability purposes, at least with connectors of the combined charging system ‘Combo 2’ as described in standard EN 62196-3.
By 31 December 2020, the Commission shall review the implementation of this Directive, and, as appropriate, submit a proposal to amend it by laying down new common technical specifications for alternative fuels infrastructure within the scope of this Directive.
Interface to charge electric vehicles could include several socket outlets or vehicle connectors as long as one of them complies with the technical specifications set out in this Directive, so as to allow multistandard recharging.
However, the choice made in this Directive of Union-wide common connectors for electric vehicles (Type 2 and Combo 2) should not be detrimental to Member States having already invested in the deployment of other standardised technologies for recharging points and should not affect existing recharging points deployed before the entry into force of this Directive. Electric vehicles already in circulation before the entry into force of this Directive should be able to recharge, even if they were designed to recharge at recharging points that do not comply with the technical specifications set out in this Directive.
a. CHAdeMO supports the general idea of this initiative, that is to boost the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure Europe-wide by asking all member states to set a national policy framework for the infrastructure build-up.
b. We welcome the decision by the European Union to protect the interest of the early movers, both the current EV owners and infrastructure operators, as per our position statement published in April 2014.
a. A multi-standard charger is equipped with more than one connector / socket, which allow it to serve EVs with different standards. Typically equipped with multiple charging cables, just like Petrol, Petrol un-leaded, Diesel or LPG arms at the petrol stations today, EV drivers only have to pick the right connector for the EV.
b. Many of European charger manufacturers produce multi-standard chargers in the market, which are today the mainstream products. The industry is aligned that these are the way forward to service all EV drivers.
c. Multi-standard chargers are practical because all EV drivers can be served. For investors and operators, this guarantees a faster recovery of investment with a bigger customer base. Automakers are also able to compete with cars (as they should!) and not with charging standards.
d. Installation of multi-standard chargers has already started in different parts of Europe and EU is taking the lead with their TEN-T/CEF projects, installing the total of 1,600+ multi-standard chargers across Europe. The overall investment will add up to 100 million EUR (of which 50 million are from the European Commission) for TEN-T projects only, and what is noteworthy is that in many of these EU projects, automakers such as BMW, Nissan, Renault and Volkswagen are participating together, regardless of the type of fast charging inlets they use.
a. You can speak about us and communicate your support for us to people around you. This can be done through direct communications in person or by phone, or through the Internet – blogs, social media such as Facebook and Twitter, etc.
b. If you would like to do more, you may reach out to the media, your local, regional, and national governments and communicate the importance of CHAdeMO chargers for you.
c. If you have any questions for the current and future status of CHAdeMO, please do not hesitate to contact the CHAdeMO Association in Europe at firstname.lastname@example.org or +33 695 122 162.